Affiliate Disclaimer is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to to mark their hunting paths or the places where they have buried hunted prey. It specialises in preying on small and medium-sized animals, including small mammals (typically rodents and rabbits), birds, and even fish,[30][24] but a large portion of its diet (more than 50%, according to some studies) is vegetable matter, including sugarcane, tubers, and fruit. The first photograph of a black adult maned wolf was taken by a camera trap in northern Minas Gerais in Brazil in 2013.[16][17][18].

[13] The skull also features a prominent sagittal crest. It is not a fox, wolf, coyote, dog, or jackal, but a distinct canid, though, based only on morphological similarities, it previously had been placed in the Canis and Vulpes genera. [28] Females ovulate spontaneously, but some authors suggest that the presence of a male is important for estrus induction. [3] Its closest living relative is the bush dog (genus Speothos), and it has a more distant relationship to other South American canines (the short-eared dog, the crab-eating fox, and the zorros or Lycalopex). Many maned wolves in human care suffer from cystinuria, a metabolic disorder in which the amino acid cystine is not reabsorbed by the renal system. [40][41] By these same criteria, the Brazilian state lists also consider it more problematic: it is a vulnerable species in the lists of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, while in the lists of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul the maned wolf is considered as "endangered" and "critically endangered" respectively. Most information on maned wolf breeding has come from the study of animals in human care. [10] A 2015 study reported genetic signatures in maned wolves that are indicative of population expansion followed by contraction that took place during Pleistocene interglaciations about 24,000 years before present. Studies in zoos in Brazil showed that up to 30% of respondents were either unaware or unable to recognize a maned wolf. About 21% of hunts are successful. The maned wolf stands about 3 feet (90 centimeters) tall at the shoulder and weighs about 50 pounds (23 kilograms). It once was considered a similar threat to cattle and sheep, although this now is known to be false. The mane is erectile and typically is used to enlarge the wolf's profile when threatened or when displaying aggression.

Maned wolves share their habitat with a wide variety of other carnivores: bush dog, crab-eating fox, hoary fox, pampas fox, puma, jaguar, pampas cat, jaguarondi, crab-eating raccoon, hog-nosed skunk and grison. The sharing of territory with domestic dogs results in a number of diseases, such as rabies virus, parvovirus, distemper virus, canine adenovirus, protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, bacterium Leptospira interrogans, and nematode Dirofilaria immitis. Burned areas have some small mammals, such as hairy-tailed bolo mouse (Necromys lasiurus) and vesper mouse (Calomys spp.) Current Smithsonian research is focusing on the threats of domestic dog diseases to the wild populations. [22][29] Armadillos are also commonly consumed. Other authors later considered it as a member of the Canis genus. [26] (At the Rotterdam Zoo, this smell once set the police on a hunt for cannabis smokers. cystine). [22] The maned wolf reproduces with difficulty in the wild, with a high rate of infant mortality. They eat seasonally abundant fruits and vegetables and are particularly interested in lobeira, whose name means "fruit of the wolf." It once was considered a similar threat to cattle and sheep, although this now is known to be false. [28], Pups are born weighing between 340 and 430 grams. In: Conserot-McCrea, A. G., & Santos, E.F. Emmons, L.H. Popularly, the maned wolf is thought to have the potential of being a chicken thief. Educational Activities You Can Do at Home, About the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Chemical Communication About Reproduction in the Maned Wolf, Ovarian Follicle Culture in the Dog and Cat, #PandaStory: Pumpkins and Snack-O-Lanterns. For this reason it has been used as a flag species for the preservation of the Brazilian cerrado. Females can go up to two years without breeding.

[28] Breeding in captivity is even more difficult, especially in temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere. The maned wolf is the largest canid of South America. They begin their lives with black fur, becoming red after ten weeks. Make it the topic of your next school project, or start a conservation club at your school. Its long, thin legs and dense reddish coat give it an unmistakable appearance. They eat seasonally abundant fruits and vegetables and are particularly interested in lobeira, whose name means "fruit of the wolf." They rarely move during the day. [6] Fecal analysis has shown consumption of the giant anteater, bush dog, and collared peccary, but it is not known whether these animals are actively hunted or scavenged. Maned wolves primarily eat small animals, fruits and vegetables. It is also listed in CITES Appendix II, which does not characterize it as threatened but notes that if there are no conservation measures, the species may fall into some category of threat in the future. [28] It is represented on the 200 reais banknote, released in September 2020. They only interact for the sake of reproduction. [42] Much of the negative view of the maned wolf as a poultry predator stems from European ethnocentrism, where peasants often had problems with wolves and foxes. Females enter estrus once a year for approximately five days. The maned wolf has three types of communication. Azara was also one of the first to describe the biology of the species and consider it an important part of Paraguay's fauna.

[36], Its predators are mainly large cats, such as the puma (Puma concolor) and the jaguar (Panthera onca), but it is most often preyed upon by the jaguar.[37]. Maned wolves are not social creatures and unlike other genera in the canidae family, they do not live in packs. Our staff, volunteers, and visitors have enjoyed watching these young wolves explore their enclosure. Support organizations like the Smithsonian’s National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute that research better ways to protect and care for this animal and other endangered species.

Maned wolves range through central and eastern South America including northern Argentina, South and Central Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and southern Peru. But their populations have been declining and the species may be in some threat category soon, so the IUCN classifies it as a near-threatened species. Several adults may congregate in the presence of a plentiful food source, for example, a fire-cleared patch of grassland that would leave small vertebrate prey exposed while foraging. [21] The front footprints are 7 to 9 cm long and 5.5 to 7 cm wide, and those of the hind feet are 6.5 to 9 cm long and 6.5 to 8.5 cm wide. The life span of maned wolves in the wild is unknown. They are threatened by habitat loss and being run over by automobiles.

The largest canid in South America, the maned wolf looks like a fox, is called a wolf, and is closely related to neither.

With some exceptions, these fruits make up between 40 and 90% of the maned wolf's diet.

[13] Like other canids, it has 42 teeth with the dental formula × 2 = 42. [6] These parts can be teeth, the heart, ears and even dry stools. Maned Wolf Behaviour. [34] Interestingly, the maned wolf is poorly parasitized by fleas. (2013). Three captive, male maned wolves were chosen for personality evaluation. The species occurs in several protected areas, including the national parks of Caraça and Emas in Brazil. In some regions of Brazil, parts of the animal's body are believed to help cure bronchitis, kidney disease, and even snake bites. Females are responsible for raising pups, but there is evidence that males provide food to their pups in both zoo and wild populations. [28], Copulation occurs during the four-day estrus period and is followed by up to 15 minutes of sexual intercourse. [9] One study based on DNA evidence showed that the extinct genus Dusicyon, comprising the Falkland Islands wolf and its mainland relative, was the most closely related species to the maned wolf in historical times, and that about seven million years ago it shared a common ancestor with that genus. However, the Brazilian Red List and the U.S. It is the largest canid in South America, with a weight between 20 and 30 kg (44 lbs and 73 lbs), and reaches up to 90 cm (35 in) at the withers.

Their mating season ranges from November to April. [22] The ICMBio list in Brazil that follows the same IUCN criteria considers the wolf to be a vulnerable species. [15] Fur of the maned wolf may be reddish-brown to golden orange on the sides with long, black legs, and a distinctive black mane. Domestic dogs pose threats through direct persecution and disease transmission. The term lobo, "wolf", originates from the Latin lupus. [35][34] The maned wolf is particularly susceptible to potentially fatal infection by the giant kidney worm. Cystine has the potential to precipitate out and form "sand" or calculi in the kidney and or bladder and cause blockages or ruptures.

Are you a student? Often, maned wolves defecate on the nests of leafcutter ants.

[13] Birthing has been observed in May in the Canastra Mountains, but data from captive animals suggest that births are concentrated between June and September. They inhabit the cerrado, the largest biome of South America, which is composed of wet and dry forests, grasslands, savannas, marshes and wetlands. Genetic studies show that it is neither fox nor true wolf, but a distinct species. [13] It typically hunts alone, usually between sundown and midnight, rotating its large ears to listen for prey animals in the grass. Lonely Lovers – Even mated pairs are mostly solitary. [22] Until 1996 the maned wolf was a vulnerable species by the IUCN. [13] The amount of sperm produced by the maned wolf is lower compared to that of other canids. Both female and male maned wolves use their urine to communicate,[25] e.g. Maned wolves live in monogamous pairs sharing a 10 square mile (26 square kilometer) territory. It is the only member of its genus, Chrysocyon.

[6], The maned wolf's longevity in the wild is unknown, but estimates in captivity are between 12 and 15 years. The major push behind diet research for maned wolves is the attempt to find a diet that will raise their urinary pH, thus preventing the formation of stones and excreting the excess cystine.

[13] Its ears are large and long (7 inches). They eat small mammals such as rodents, rabbits and insects. It looks more like a long-legged fox than a wolf.

Maned Wolf Characteristics. [6], Gestation lasts 60 to 65 days and a litter may have from two to six pups. Its length ranges from 125 to 130 cm (50 to 52 [28], The maned wolf hunts by chasing its prey, digging holes, and jumping to catch birds in flight. The specimen is kept in the South American Collection of the Zoologisk Museum, Denmark. However, its diversity is still greater than that of other canids.[22].

Maned wolves are monogamous, and a pair will live in and defend the same territory, but rarely actually interact. [4], The maned wolf bears minor similarities to the red fox, although it belongs to a different genus. [14], The maned wolf is not considered an endangered species by the IUCN because of its wide geographical distribution and adaptability to man-made environments.