All rights reserved. During Camillus's infancy, his relative Quintus Furius Paculus was the Roman Pontifex Maximus.[1].

We cannot convert the Roman chronology of this period to our era.

Therefore, before the dawn, the Roman light infantry disrupted the Gallic defences and, subsequently, the Roman heavy infantry and pikemen finished off their enemy. Nonetheless, a surrounded Roman garrison continued to resist on the Capitoline Hill. Title: General and Roman statesman. To start with, it should be noted that in his age, the usual republican magistracy of consul was not common. Author Archives: Marcus Furius Camillus.

Who knows what those exceptions entail? Although this city had been a bitter enemy of the Romans in the 490s BC, after both the Volsci and Aequi later began to wage war against Rome, Tusculum joined Rome, unlike most Latin cities. The creation of the new magistracy was followed by general celebration. Camillus rendered himself controversial in not fulfilling his promise to dedicate a tenth of the plunder to Delphi for the god Apollo. The first member of the Furius family to become 'visible' in our sources, is a man named Sextus Furius Fusus, one of the consuls of 488 V. He had to defend Rome against the Volscian general Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus, a very skilled commander who liberated many Latin towns from the Roman yoke. The Senate unanimously approved of Camillus's view and ordered the reconstruction of Rome. Rome's reconstruction took an entire year. Not interested in capitulation terms, but in Veii's complete destruction, the Romans slaughtered the entire adult male population and made slaves of all the women and children.

Thus the Furii had become an important Roman family by the 450s. Camillus proceeded then to capture Bola (Aequi's capital) thus subjugating the Aequi. Corrections? This required the Romans to commence a siege lasting several years. Another question is: can we trust our main source, the Roman historian Livy, and other sources? During the fighting, he was wounded and lost his brother. Part 1. Marcus Furius Camillus (c.435-365 VC): Roman general and statesman, captured Veii, annexed Tusculum and put an end to the conflict of the orders.

His office was troubled chiefly by the charismatic Marcus Manlius Capitolinus, who became his greatest detractor and around whom all plebeians had aggregated.

The entire Roman army retreated into the deserted Veii whereas most civilians ended at the Etruscan Caere. Following the great historian Julius Beloch (1864-1929), many twentieth-century scholars have taken a skeptical view on the possibility to know anything about Roman history before, say, 300 BCE. Finally, it needs to be stressed that Rome was more or less of besieged. It would have resolved the poverty issues, but the patricians opposed it. In 398 BC, Camillus received consular tribune powers and then looted Capena. In Rome, the plebeians were insistent about the dyad of consuls.

His greatest victory was as dictator in 396 bce, when he conquered the Etruscan city of Veii. Camillus opposed the plebeian plan to populate Veii with half of the Romans. [1], With the Gauls marching once more toward Latium, all Romans reunited despite their severe differences. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome. Camillus headed then to Satricum with his youngest men and the city was relieved. He was again appointed dictator in 390, when the Gauls had captured Rome, and he is said to have defeated the invaders.

The story (Livy 1.24) probably has its origins in the second century BCE and is suspect. Near them, at the Alban Hills, Camillus discovered their disorganization, which was due to unruly celebrations. That victory, however, was probably invented to counterbalance Rome’s defeat by the Gauls at the Allia River the same year. Antium and several of the Volsci cities united, including the Latin cities of Praeneste, and Velitrae. In 403 BC, he was appointed censor with Marcus Postumius Albinus Regillensis and, by means of extensive taxation, took action to solve financial problems resulting from incessant military campaigns.[1]. He had a brother Spurius. Thereafter he fought successfully against the Aequi, Volsci, Etruscans, and Gauls. Camillus decided then that he would command through his son Lucius. However, in Rome, the patricians of the Senate were planning to use Camillus as leverage against the agitated plebeians because the Conflict of the Orders had worsened due to a severe economic downturn. He told the city's inhabitants that the Gauls always exterminated their defeated enemies. After he refused a makeshift generalship, a Roman messenger sneaked into the Capitol and, therein, the Senators appointed Camillus dictator for a year with the task of confronting the Gauls. E.g., the capture of Veii, usually dated in 396 V, almost certainly has to be dated in 393 BCE. Lucius had at least three sons. He seized the opportunity to divert the bitter conflict between Roman social classes into a unifying external conflict. [1], When the enemy besieged Rome, Camillus slew most invaders on Mount Marcius, setting fire to their palisades during the windy hours of dawn. He besieged Falerii and, after he rejected as immoral the proposal of a local school teacher who had surrendered most of the local children to the Romans, the people of Falerii were moved to gratitude, and made peace with Rome.

[1], To Camillus, his friends explained that, although the condemnation seemed unavoidable, they would help to pay the fine. This alienated the hearts of his fellow-citizens, who were not accustomed to such pomp and display. (Livy credits him with only two tribuneships but is probably mistaken.). [1] During that time, the Volsci and Aequi invaded the Roman territory, some Latin nations revolted, and the Etruscans besieged Satricum, which was a Roman ally. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! To confront such a crisis, in 389 BC, Camillus, who was military tribune at that time, was appointed Roman dictator yet again. Furthermore, Camillus rejected both the land redistribution and the uncontrolled Roman population of Veii. Standard. He was consul in 413 and 409, and tribune with consular powers in 407, 405, 398, 397, 395, 394, and 391.

The city of Veii was powerful and was located on a well-fortified and elevated site. However, the Romans lost Satricum and Camillus failed to capture Antium, the capital of the Volsci. At this time, Spurius' cousin was pontifex maximus (high priest), and two other cousins were to occupy the supreme magistracy in 446 and 441. As we will see below, the Romans were deeply divided and the consulship was a contested office.

According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome. After the entire Roman army was defeated at the Allia brook (Battle of the Allia), the defenceless Rome was seized by the invaders. Omissions? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Camillus had more than three brothers: the eldest one was Lucius junior, who was both consul and tribune of consular powers. After this campaign, the Roman dictator Camillus celebrated a Triumph in Rome. The Roman soothsayers announced that the gods were displeased by this, so the Senate charged the citizens and the sought amounts of gold were retrieved. Camillus found that the Gauls were distracted, celebrating their latest spoils leading to much drunkenness at their camp. When Rome suffered severe defeats in 396 BC, the tenth year of this war, the Romans resorted again to Camillus, who was named dictator for the first time. The Gauls may have been ill-prepared for the siege, as an epidemic broke out among them as a result of not burying the dead. "[1], 4th-century BC Roman Dictators and general, The Gauls and the Second Foundation of Rome,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 21:01. [1], Because many of the war prisoners were from Tusculum, Camillus led the Romans there and the city was bloodlessly annexed, and its citizens endowed with full Roman rights. Camillus was hailed then by all other Roman exiles throughout the region. Back in Rome, Camillus celebrated with another Triumph.[1]. Although this city had been a bitter enemy of the Romans in the 490s BC, after both Volsci and Aequibegan to wage war against Rome, Tusculum joined Rome, unlike most Latin cities. Marcus Furius Camillus. They occupied the consulship in 481, 474, and 472.

He was called the "second founder" of Rome. This was a symptom of the social conflict between the rich and the poor, to which we shall return below. The Aequi and Volsci easily conquered the towns in east and south Latium. [1] This made Camillus the longest-reigning of all Roman dictators until Sulla and Julius Caesar. When Lucius Junius Brutus and Publius Valerius Publicola had expelled the kings and established the republic (in the last decade of the sixth century), the patrician families started to monopolize the office of consul, the supreme magistracy in Rome.